Home Appliances Division
The Home Appliances Division of SEC (Samsung Electronics Co.) was a lot
larger organization in
Plant compared to the Semiconductors Division,
with about 45,000 employees in many independent Business Units such as TV,
Video, Audio, Microwave Oven, Airconditioner/Heater, Refrigerator, Computer.
Monitor (Computer Monitor) etc. each unit headed by Director or Sr. Director
with each independent Design, Production and Quality Organinizations. It
also had a central quality organization called"
Center" directly reporting to the President of the Division even before I
moved in, which monitored qualities of all Business Units, sampling and
testing their products regularly including some Japanese products purchased
at the market.
became the head of this QMC, Quality
Center, and started to work for Home Appliances Division in Suwon
in 1992. On the first day of my
work, Administration Director complained about my salary increase as it was
the highest increase in Samsung history. I told him what had happened at
Chairman Kang's office, asked him to talk with Chairman Kang and he didn't
say any more. This way, I had a large pay increase just once. But I didn't
want to talk about my salary any more, they didn't adjust any more and the
initial salary stayed there for rest of 4 years.
my performance at Semiconductors Division had been well known throughout SEC
that time and everyone knew I was
backed by Chairman Kang, no one tried to say anything about my job including
Division President and I could do the job as I wanted to do in Appliances
Division too. Especially, Home Appliance Division had lot stronger influence
of Japanse culture, which was
more military style bureaucracy, while the Semiconductors Division was more
influenced by American liberal culture. Here too, I started same 3 years
plan of QIP, Quality Innovation Project, just as I did in Semiconductors.
trained and brain washed QMC members first for more than a month through
frequent meetings, emphasizing the importance of the Standard Operation,
explaining the fundamentals of QIP and training how to audit the line
operations. Then, I sent 2-3 auditors to the manufacturing lines of each
Business Unit to audit. I also rotated auditors to different Business Unit
every quarter to make the audits fair for every Business Unit so that there
would be no complaint from any Business Unit.
addition, I attended regular Quality Meetings of all Business Units as often
as I could
where I did my best to brain wash them to change their quality concept,
and called Dept. and Section Managers' Meeting of each Business Unit myself
once a month at least, informed what we have found through the audits with
the progress of QIP in each Business Unit, listened to their opinions,
forced to smoke together to make the atmosphere softer here too¡¦ etc. etc.
This way, I think I had more than 500 times of this kind of meetings during
4 years in Home Appliances Division.
explained why the Japanese quality is good. "Japanese are very
sensitive for good looking and, if you go to a good Japanese restaurant and
order same sashimi for many guests, they are very used to prepare every dish
exactly same way – same place for each piece of food on the same shape
dish, same color, same direction – beautifully. This proves they have
been well trained for "Uniform Quality" for long time. Japanese
dish is prepared for eyes while Korean or Chinese foods are for taste and
volume without any interest on beauty or uniformity. We have to learn this
Japanese culture to make uniform quality product which is the key of mass
don't think I should repeat same story again as it was mostly the repeat of
what I had done in Semiconductors Division. As the result, 3 years later,
the quality of Samsung home appliances was improved almost to the level of
Japanese products and most of the quality problems we had in 1992 had been
disappeared. Therefore, we could tell customers our quality was same as
Japanese products at least. The name of QIP itself was discontinued
thereafter, but fundamental processes were continued indefinitely and
Samsung quality had been improving continuously even after I left Samsung.
interesting happening while I was working in Suwon
Plant was the visit of a Director
from Secretarial Office of Samsung Group HQ, which was the most powerful
organization of Samsung Group. This was the only case I met a guy from
Secretarial Office in more than 10 years in Samsung. This director asked me
whether I had quality data of Japanese competitors. I said we bought some
samples in the market and tested ourselves which data we had. He said he was
not talking about our test data but the data of our competitors themselves.
said it should be extremely confidential data in any company and I had no
way to get it. He said we must have it to compare with the data of our
products and I must get it somehow. He was practically asking me to steal
the data which was ridiculous request to me.
I said "I have worked so many years in various plants but never
concerned about the quality of other companies. Even we know our products
have much worse quality than other companies, there is nothing much we can
do in short period as our technology must be limited any way. All we can do
is to do our best to improve the quality as soon as possible. On the other
hand, if our quality is much better than others, are you going to stop to
improve our quality any more? This has been my management philosophy and I
have been doing my best to improve operation and quality regardless what the
if you really insist me to get the data from Japan, let me have about 20 smartest guys. I will send them to American CIA for
training for a year or two and send them to Japanese competitors to steal
a face he showed me!! He left my office so mad I believe. The guys from
Secretarial Office had been always most scarey guys for even the presidents
of Samsung, but this fearless Director made him mad. The QMC Dept. and
Section Managers who watched the incident were surprised and amazed so much,
and could not say even a word. I told them "If I do not show up
tomorrow to my office, you may consider I have been fired." However,
nothing had happened and I heard nothing from him ever. Probably, he was
shamed and could not even report to anyone in his office what had happened
in my office.
Appliances had so many different products which use tremendous number of
components which quality influences final product quality directly.
Therefore, the components quality had been a big problem always and I
visited Samsung Electrio-mechanic Co. at very next door producing many
components for home appliances products and Samsung Electron Tubes Co. in
Yangsan near Pusan producing picture tubes for TV and computer monitors,
once a month at least, and did my best to brain wash them and to establish
basic quality control system there too.
addition, there was an organization called "Sung-Jun-Hoe" (Star
Electric Society - named from the name of Samsung meaning
Star") with a
few tens of component suppliers to SEC. I spent quite a time visiting these
companies too frequently, inspecting their lines and lecturing to staffs
about the quality. One time, SEC invited all Presidents and Directors of the
member companies to Shilla Hotel in Cheju Island for 5 days and had
workshops with them, all paid by Samsung. I went to Checju every week for
4-5 weeks to have a lecture to them about the quality. On the last week, I
took Jane to
and stayed few more days after the official program.
the lecture to them I said,
guys might think you are competing with Korean competitors each other.
However, Samsung is competing with Japanese, not Korean, in the world
market. To win in this fierce competition and survive, we have no choice but
to produce quality products equal to at least or better than Japanese
products and component quality is an absolute key to the final product
quality. Therefore, if we can not get components of good enough quality
domestically, we have to buy Japanese components regardless we like or not,
which means you are practically competing with Japanese components
manufacturers. These will become worse and worse as Samsung product quality
gets better and better. Any company, realizing this fact, improves quality
would survive but anyone who doesn't care about the quality just looking for
short term profit only would not be able to survive very soon.
If you guys do not realize this fact and continue as you had been, I
believe about 80-90% of your companies might have to be closed down in less
than next 10 years." It was really a threat to them but many people
came to me and said "It was one of the best advise we have heard. Thank
you." during the break time.
I was working at Home Appliances, the biggest event perhaps was so called
"New Management" of Chairman Kun-Hee Lee. As he finished high
and studied college in U.S.A., he was quite different from his father Byung-Chul Lee, the founder and the
first Chairman of Samsung and typical Confucianism cultured pro-Japanese
Korean old man. I also heard his lectures a few times and the most important
theme was "Globalization". He said Samsung would become a company
witout nationality sooner or later, there would be all kinds of talented
nationalities among Samsung directors and Samsung would be headquarted
anywhere best in the world.
a strange word and surprise to most of Samsung people but somewhat
similar to what I have lectured to the staffs saying "There is no more
nation of Republic
exists. There is only one nation in the world called Republic
is nothing more than Korea
in State of Asia of Republic
Earth. We have to abandon nationalism as soon as possible. You are just one of
member of the world of Earth. I am not a traitor to
but not a patriot to Korea
either. I am just a cosmopolitan without nationality."
spent quite money for this "New Management" campaign. Not only all
directors and the above but also all managers were sent to Samsung Training
Center many times and many directors and the above were called to Japan,
Europe and United States to listen to the lectures of Chairmman Lee several
times which must have cost a lot. One time, all SEC Business Unit Heads were
called to L.A. and asked to find their products in the market, which they
had hard time to find as Samsung products were not popular in American
market in spite they thought they exported a lot to U.S. market. He asked
directors to buy their own products, displayed together with Japanese
competitors and made them to realize how their products are poorer and
unpopular in American market.
seemed this "New Management" campaign had created some amount of
mentality change but did not contribute much for the innovation of the
management as it was supposed to be. It was no more than a wonderful idea of
the "Emperor of Samsung" and waisted a lot of time and money
without much result. To make it really successful, the Emperor himself had
to be changed first to lead the people. However, he asked everybody to be
changed repeatedly without he himself was changed at all. About 6 months
after the campaign was started, I went to Samsung
for an annual check-up and was asked not to get out the X-Ray room as the
Emperor was passing by. Why can't I go out just because the Chairman is
passing by? It was nothing but a great show and nothing could be changed
takes usually continuous effort for quite a long time as the story of Thomas
Edison. One day, a guy asked to
"What would be the shortest way to change people's mind?" and
Edson replied "Wait for 3 generations." (Because everyone today
will be dead by that time.) This story tells us it is so hard to change
people's mind. For me, it took more than 3 years just to implement the
Standard Operation in Semiconductors Division only. Then, how long would it
take this great but very strange "Globalization" idea of Mr. Lee
in entire Samsung group, thoug it is not an idea of a Sr. Director but the
Chairman of the group? I didn't believe it could be done in a year or two.
way, the result was I never heard any new foreign director was hired in
Samsung, the only foreign director of SEC in charge of legal patent issue
against TI had been promoted or treated better nor any General Manager of
oversea branch had been switched to local people, until I left Samsung. I
was not sure what the so called "Globalization" of Samsung meant.
It had just decorated a part of Samsung history beautifully without much
actual change of the company. When we were trained in
as a part of Globalization training was how to hold folk and knife at the
dining table, which might be the right manner in old
but not in California
any more. Rather than that kind of education, wouldn't it
be far more effective for
Globalization, if we repeat "Korea
Republic" hundreds of times?
was not sure whether it was a part of this "New Management"
campaign or not. One day, it was ordered from Samsung HQ to ban the smoking
in all buildings of Samsung. By this order of Emperor, all ash trays had
been disappeared from all offices instantly. Well, I could not live without
smoking and I continued to smoke in my office regardless what the Emperor
said. However, no body said nothing and Sr. Director Cho was a trouble maker
of SEC any way.
had traveled a lot in Semiconductors to visit customers in U. S. A.
Europe. However, in Home Appliances, as customers are all consumers, I didn't have
to visit customers. Instead, I still had to travel a lot visiting oversea
plants of each Business Units, mostly in Southeast Asia and
Europe. This time, I stayed mostly for a week, some times for 2-3 weeks, once a
quarter at most for one plant to educate people there. Because it was
practically impossible to implement Standard Operation by this kind of short
visits, what I did was to look around the plant, take anything wrong with
video camcorder and explain them what to improve showing the video tape. It
was also impossible to figure out by data how much they had made
improvements. However, since many Heads of Business Units asked me to go
often and I was always welcome by the plant managers whenever I visit them,
I am sure I had helped them a lot.
Europe, I went a TV plant in
often, not too far from London, which was manufacturing TV sets, the major product of Home Appliances
Division. The England
had such a high unemployment rate at the time and any foreign investment was
so welcome always. One day, I heard BBC repeating a news about Gold Star
opened a new plant for 600-700 employees as a big news for whole day.
Therefore, when Samsung opened a new factory in Winyard to produce TV and
Microwave Oven in addition, Queen Elizabeth attended at the opening
ceremony. Samsung was one of the most popular company in England at the
time, but when Samsung closed down all factories in England later, I heard
Samsung people in London were so ashamed and could not walk around.
interesting story I heard in
was an old man is scarier than police when you violate traffic regulation.
Once a reckless driving is found by an old man, he will follow you all the
way and lecture you for an hour or longer. It was a reasonable story which
could be possible only
in a gentlemen country of England.
was the country where the mad cow desease had been started. When I was in England
once, people didn't want to eat not only beef but pork too. A Korean
restaurant in London
was serving chicken BBQ as they could not use beef or pork for Korean BBQ,
and it was my first time to eat chicken BBQ.
golf was very popular in U. K. with so many golf courses, Korean Samsung
expatriates were playing golf more than any other countries. Therefore I
played golf in England
more than any other countries at week ends including several links courses
at sea shore.
day, we finished golf at around 2 PM at a nice golf course. Since we didn't
have a lunch, we were very hungry. We went to the club house to take a lunch
but were refused because of dress code. It might be a custom of gentlemen
country but who the hell would bring formal dress to play golf? Well, the
regulation was regulation. We went to the town to have a lunch but, there
too, all the restaurants were closed for lunch after 2 PM.
We were really starved to death
but it was the gentlemen country. You
have no choice but to follow the rule. Fortunately,
afther checking a few restaurants, a kind bar manager in one place prepared
a simple sandwich and we could barely avoid starvation.
more golof experience since I am talking about golf. I played a golf in
once. It was very cloudy day when we started the golf. At one of PAR-5 long
hole, there was some blue sky when we teed
off at the tee ground. When we hit the second shot, a light rain started.
When we hit the third shot, it was much heavier rain. It changed to the snow
when we approached to the green and, when we finished the hole, the snow
stopped and we could see some blue sky again. During this about 15 minutes
of playing through about 500 yards hole, we could experience all weathers
and European weather often changes so fast.
Blasi, the General Manager of Samsung VCR Plant in Barcelona, Spain, was the
only local man among so many Samsung oversea plants and he always welcomed
me because he could communicate with me in English easily most of all. I
visited this plant often and whenever I visited, he took me to the best
restaurants in the city. However, the food was always so salty in Spain. Though we said "No salt. No salt" wherever we go, the foods were
still too salty. I was invited Dr. Blasi's home a couple of times and became
familiar with their families too. Even after we both quit
Samsung, we had
still communicated through e-mail, they visited here last year and I took
them around bay area for sightseeing.
northeastern part of
is located, have been an independent country called Catalunya but
occupied it making a part of Spain. However, Catalunyans are extremely proud to be Catalunyans rather than
Spanish and they hate Spain
so much. Dr. Blasi sent heir children to France
for education just because they didn't like Spanish education. I wanted to
see bull fight and flemingo
dancing since I was in Spain
but Dr. Blasi said "They are Spanish culture, not Catalunyans" and
didn't want to take me there. In
Spain, golf was not too popular and I played only one round of golf in Barcelona
with Korean General Manager of Samsung Sales Office in
the founder and first chairman Byung-Chul Lee had emphasized about human
resources to be the greatest asset of the company, Samsung spent quite a
money for training and education of employees. The most amazing program was
"Regional Specialist Program". Samsung gave $50,000 to 200 –
300 selected employees every year and asked them to go any country they
like, stay there 5 years and do whatever they like
to do spending all $50,000 there before they come home 5 years later.
There was no special goal to achieve nor checked the mony where they spent.
They spread all over the world not only
but also Vietnam
or small undeveloped small countries in South America and
. I don't think any other company in the world would have this kind of
generous program for the employees. All Samsung asked them was to learn
local languages, history, geography and culture etc. to become expert of the
country and to make friends in the country. I went to
once just to spend a week end and was guided by these "Regional
Specialsits" in Spain. They were the best tour guides, much better than any tour guide of travel
addition, a Korean expatriate in SESA (Samsung VCR Plant in
) took me once and drove along the Meditteranean coast to Marseille,
Cannes, Nice and
Monaco, but I got the impression that Nice beach, so popular in
Europe, was not any better than many Californian beaches. It might be so famous
just because it is too cold and rainy in most of the
contries. I went to casinos in
too but was very disappointed as they were even much smaller than Lake Tahoe
Nevada, though it was still interesting to me as it was some different city in
had a TV plant in Budapest, Hungary. When the door to East Europe was open, Samsung launched this plant prior
to any Japanese company and the General Manager put a special effort to
advertise Samsung and
to Hungarian people. As the result, he could succeed to give great
impression of Samsung products to the local society as they are superior to
any Japanese products including Sony or Panasonic.
I took a plane to Budapest, I was surprised as a passenger next to me asked me whether I worked for
Samsung as he noticed Samsung logo on my buckle. I asked him what kind of
business he was in, expecting he must be working in electronics business,
but he said he has nothing to do with electronics business and everybody in
Hungry knew Samsung.
found later arriving at
airport that all carts in the airport had Samsung logo and, at the top of
stadium dome, there was a huge Samsung logo too. Samsung also supported
annual marathon, giving away few ten thousamds of T-shirts with Samsung logo
who ran for the marathon, and gave scholarship fund to the most famous
university in Budapest.
American continent, there were TV plant of SEC and components plant of
Samsung Electro-mechanic Co. in
Tijuana, Mexico, just cross the border from
San Diego. I visited 2-3 times a year there through
is much closer from
, to see my sons and friends in Bay Area for a few days on the way to Tijuana. I stayed always at a hotel in
and commuted to
by car and all Samsungs expatriates lived in San Diego
Division was somewhat Americaned as the technology came from U.S., while Home Appliances
Division had a lot of old custom remained. Everywhere I visited,
the General Manager reserved a suit room of top class hotel for me always as
the courtesy to a Sr. Director. At first, I asked not to do as I didn¡¯t
spend much of time in hotel but to sleep in the night, but they said it was
the general practice of the company for Sr. Directors. Since I couldn¡¯t
stop it every time and it didn¡¯t cost me a penny, I gave up and stayed in
time in Bangkok, a hotel called Shangrila Hotel was reserved for me which was supposed to
be one of the best hotel in the city. There was a living room about two
times larger than bed room which was large also with two king size beds.
room was this great but I checked in the hotel late evening, as I arrived
at early morning on the way from Indonesia
to Seoul, directly went to the
SEC plant and had dinner with SEC people before I went to the hotel. Since I
had to catch early flight to Seoul
next morning, it was really a waist of money to stay in this expansive room
of expansive hotel. Well, what can I do? I was working for wealthy company
any way. I fell in sleep at around 11:00 PM.
woke up by telephone bell and found it was about midnight. It was a
telephone operator of the hotel asking what time would be the best to call
me for wake-up call. I didn¡¯t ask wake-up call. What kind of hotel is this
waking up the guest at midnight for this kind of stupid question of wake-up
call which I didn¡¯t even asked for? Well, she did it for a special
kindness to the guest. I tried to sleep again after I hung up the phone.
think I almost fell in sleep. Another telephone bell woke me up again about
an hour later asking same question by another hotel operator. This was
supposed to be the best top class hotel in
and operators were waking up guest twice in the middle of night for same
stupid questions!! I was really mad and shouted ¡°Is it you girls¡¯hobby
to wake guests
up in the middle of night? Where
is your manager?¡± It seemed she was really shaken up and said there was no
manager around. Well, what can I do? I just hung
up and tried to sleep again. I wrote on the questionnaire sheet in the room
¡°I have never seen this kind of lousy hotel in my whole life. Not only
myself, but also I will ask none of my friend to stay in this lousy hotel in
the future.¡± and left it
on the front desk when I checked
out next morning. It semed this was another problem of excessive kindness in
Southeast Asia was usually too hot and I sweat a lot under hot weather, I
didn¡¯t play golf usually in Southeast Asia, but just once in
. I didn¡¯t know what had been arranged by the General Manager there, but I
had a caddy, a woman carrying a parasol and another woman to carry a
portable chair. Because there was not much time to sit during the golfing, I
didn¡¯t use the portable chair too often and she insisted me to sit every
moment I was waiting for other players. However, I learned the total cost
these three were cheaper than one
caddy cost in
at the time.
was not too much interested in famous Thailand sightseeing as I had been to
most famous places in Thailand already during my Southeast Asia trip with
Jane together at AMI in 1978, but there were still some palces to go such as
elephant show and an island called ¡°James Bond Island¡± in Phuket which
became very popular to sightseers after the 007 movie of ¡°Gold Fingers¡±
was taken. We had to drive for a while by car from Phuket and took a boat
for a while to go to ¡°James
¡±. It looked like quite a big island in the 007 movie but it was really a
tiny island actually. The beach James Bond landed with his aircraft was too
small to leave an aircraft there. However, it was very interesting island to
recall many scenes of 007 Gold Fingers movie.
I can recall at the best was a trip in Indonesia. There was a refrigerater plant of SEC in
, the second largest city in
at the eastern part of
Island. I went to
the famous Bali from there too but went to a mountain with volcano in a weekend. It took
about an hour of driving to get there and we had to take a horse ride to
approach to the volcano, which was my first experience to ride a horse.
there was a wide flat area and we had to ride horses for about 1km one way
to get to the center of the mountain where the inactive volcano was. There
was no lava and some smokes were still coming out from the volcano now.
problem started when we took horse ride again for another 1km and got back
to the car. As it was my first horse ride even without proper saddle but a
blanket, my buttocks started to be painful, I couldn¡¯t even sit well and I
had quite a hard time with pain for several days.
didn¡¯t go to
too often as I didn¡¯t like hot weather and the consumers there didn¡¯t
have much complaint for Samsung products. I rather went to
more frequently for TV plant in
, VCR plant in Tienjin and audio plant in Hyejoo. Beijing TV plant was
originally owned by the government, as all enterprises in China
were government owned, which Samsung bought 51% of the share. However, there
was the condition of the purchase that all employees had to be kept without
any labor reduction, as the Chinese government had to employ 100% of their
people somewhere to feed them. There were several thousands of employees
working in the plant out of which 80% were excess people according to the
Samsung Suwon factory standard.
had no other choice but to keep all these excess people in the plant
extending assembly line a few times longer than Suwon
plant to assign less work load for each operator but to hold more people in
the line. Because of cheap labor, the labor cost was still cheaper than
plant with these many prople. However, the primary objective to invest in China
for Samsung was not only cheap labor but to penetrate into huge market of China
as early as possible. As the result, there were too many idling people,
talking each other, taking nap on the floor and just walking around the
working area. It was not the situation to talk about the productivity nor
quality. And this was the problem of communist country.
the Sr. Director of Quality was there, I had advised many area to improve
the quality under the situation and suggested to arrange all operators into
4-5 groups to work only once in 4-5 weeks as we are paying wages any way
regardless they work or not. However, the answer was ¡°No¡± due to some
unknown reason or Chinese custom. (I think it was because of fairness to
other workers in other government operated companies.) I have learned a lot
of these things have been changed now but I wonder how they have solved this
problem. Without solving this kind of problems, I wonder how they can
compete in world market now. Any way, the China at the time was really ridiculous.
contrast to this
plant, our Tienjin VCR plant was 100% Samsung investment and was built by
Samsung based on the standard of Suwon
plant. Therefore, it was not much different from Suwon
it was rather cleaner and more efficient as it was a new plant, which I
could train same way as I had done in European plants.
Beijing and Tienjin plants, I visited several famous tourist spots such as
Sojoo, Taesan and Shanghai etc. However, there were not too much interesting
places to see other than Beijing
and Great Wall. I heard there are many newly developed beautiful places to
visit in China
now but it was hard to find any places to interest me at the time from tour
books other than Xian where Emperor Jin built a great palace long time ago.
I thought about the trip to Xian a few times but didn¡¯t go there because I
could not trust the safety of Chinese domestic airlines at the time.
1995, Jane came to Beijing after my official work of the trip is over and I showed her around for 2-3
days. At that time, unfortunately, several Samsung VIP were happened to be
in Beijing and all Samsung Beijing people were tied up to VIP visitors and
they gave us a company car only without anyone to guide us
with a local driver who ddidn¡¯t speak English at all. We used
Chinese language we had learned in
whole day with the driver but could communicate with him somehow during the
go to Hyeju Audio Plant, I had to fly to Hong Kong, take a train to
Shenzhen, cross the border to
and drive about an hour north to arrive at Hyeju. The General Manager of
this audio plant really liked me and invited me quite often as he said they
are learning a lot from me. I planted a memorial tree in the front yard of
the plant by his request and I wish it is still there growing.
took Jane here once and received a great entertainment from the General
Manager. As Hyeju is a rather small city, the best hotel there was something
like a third class hotel in big city, though I always stayed in a suite room
with two large rooms. Since Jane was coming too, he removed all hotel home
appliances and installed all Samsung products of TV, audio set, VCR etc.
which greatly impressed Jane. He also took us to the best restaurant in the
city, ordered most expensive foods such as lobster and also gave a large and
beautiful Chinese vase as a gift to Jane. He also came along to Shenzhen
when we leave Hyeju, showed folk village there and played a round of golf
together in Shenzhen,
which were all so impressive and luxury to Jane.
It might sound like I was doing
not much for the company but playing around with company money. However, I
wish you do not misunderstand. All these enjoyments were done during
weekends only after I worked hard in the plants during week days.
my work for more than 4 years in Home Appliances Division, I had enjoyed
quite a luxury life but, as we could improve the quality of our products
upto Japanese products level, I believe I had done more than I was paid for.
1996, Samsung purchased an American computer company called AST Computers in
California and I was asked to go there to improve their computer quality as it was very
poor. It looked like I was a firefighter moving around wherever there was a
fire and I accepted the proposal as it was 10 years since I came back to
Korea (2 years plan originally), I didn¡¯t need to worry about school
education cost of kids any more as they had all been graduated from colleges
and I wanted to go back to U.S.A. whenever I had a chance to go back. I
this way in 1996 after 10 years of living in