TMI – Life in Taiwan

It was the best years of AMI when we moved to California and AMI started to worry about having all eggs in one basket. What if there is a fire in KMI or any major accident in KMI or Korean society? AMI started to think about the second assembly plant, looked around the best place to build it and selected Taiwan.

We just returned from the long trip around the U. S. A. and started to prepare to return to Korea . At this time, AMI proposed me to go to Taiwan as a General Manager for about two years with my assembly experience, since AMI had assembly operations in Tijuana, Mexico or Korea only, they could not find any experienced assembly man in AMI, and told me they will get green cards for our family so that we could either return to Korea or return to AMI to live in the United States permanently, whichever we want at that time, after two years assignment in Taiwan.,

With this proposal, I thought over and over and concluded to accept the proposal, as it was not a bad idea to work as a General Manager with full authority and responsibility of an operation, as it was still a No. 2 man in KMI, even though the General Manager of KMI listened to my idea quite well and I was promoted to a Director of Plant Operation later, before we were proposed to move to California. I wanted to operate a plant just as I want and prove my way is still a right way to operate, and I thought kids would not have much problem returning to Korea two years later.

As I know my weak areas very well that I am not a social guy nor hard worker focusing daily life more to "ENJOY TODAY", I had never wanted to be a real president of a company who has to meet a lot of people, has to take quite a risk of business and to take too much pressure including responsibility of whole employee's lives too. However, a General Manager's job had no this kind of hardship nor risk and it seemed to be a very good job with rather easier life to experience once in a life. (I have always liked VP position than president as it has far less responsibility but quite an authority within a company.)

I went to my boss, Mr. Charlie Isherwood, VP Manufacturing, and asked same question I asked for KMI – "Are you going to send other expateriates with me? Or send just me alone? If you send me alone, I will tell Taiwan people that I will return to AMI in two years and this plant has to be operated by all your hands thereafter. Therefore, you have to learn from me as much as possible in just two years to take over the operation, which will encourage them to work and learn as hard as they can." Because he had already experienced KMI case, he answered immediately this time "You may go alone without any other expateriate, if you are confident."

We applied permanent resident visas in April or May 1975 and I travelled quite often to Taiwan as soon as we returned from long trip around U. S. A.. We established a company in Taiwan called TMI – Taiwan Microsystems Inc. and selected the plant site in Taichung, the 3rd. largest city in Taiwan at the middle part of the island with AMI lawyer and Manufacturing Engineering Manager together, and started to look for key employees to start the operation, looked for a house to live for our family, checked the school our kids to attend and learned about the Taiwan society and customs etc. etc..

However, I had a hard time from the first day I landed in Taiwan .

In Taiwan, most of business men speak English well generally and almost everyone has English name, though he/she has no business with English speaking country and can not speak English at all. In addition, they don't use English at all in the society, even such common English words used evey country in the world such as hotel, taxi, TV, elevator. These word are all translated to Chinese language as elevator is a "Electric Ladder", TV  is a "Electric Viewer", hotel is a "Grand Restaurant" in Chinese. In addition, Chinese hotel names are totally different from English names as "Grand Hotel" in Taipaei is "Round Mountain Grand Restaurant" in Chinese, which meaning has no relation to it's English name of "Grand Hotel".

When I travelled to Taiwan for the first time, I had no idea of this kind of Chinese names. Since I can read a few thousands of Chinese characters, I thought it would be much easier to communicate in Taiwan. When I arrived Taipei International Airport, I had no problem reading all the signs and ad boards at the airport.

However, the problem started when I took a taxi and asked to go to "Grand Hotel". The taxi driver didn't speak English at all and had no idea what the "Grand Hotel" meant. He kept just watching me and I kept saying "Grand Hotel" repeatedly. I couldn't understand how the taxi driver who could not understand the "Grand Hotel" would be doing business in an international airport. Any way, after watching each other for a while, it looked like he felt he needed a help. He went out, brought a guy who could understand English little bit, and, finally, we could leave the airport for the "Grand Hotel" or "Round Mountain Grand Restaurant".

It was much easier from the second visit and I started to hire key engineers just as I had learned from Mr. Clevenger in Fairchild Semikor. I had interviewed many candidates buying a lunch and talking all kinds of things about Taiwan. I also learned a lot about the Taiwan during these interviews.

In Korea , all graduates of famouse universities wanted to join a large company. However, I found it was quite different in Taiwan. Regardless which universty he/she had graduated, he/she wanted his/her own business regardless it is big or small rather than to work for some one. The only guy to join a company as a salaried would be a guy who does not have money to start own business, even a very small shop. (This is why the majority of national GDP is produced by only a handful conglomerates in Korea while by so many small and medium sized enterprises in Taiwan.)

Another fact I found was they do not trust people easily taking quite a time to understand others, but, once they got confidence on others, he/she is trusted as a good friend absolutely and permanently, which is quite different from most of Koreans.

Because of this nationality, very often, few friends get together and establish a company investing same amount of money each other, one of them become the president of the company and no other guy involves to the company trusing him/her 100%. Once this company makes money, they form another company making another guy to become a president and so on and so on, until everybody becomes a president. No one will complain or accuse friend even though a guy fails business and looses all the money. This was the Chinese and that was how they had been tightly united, built the China Town in foreign countries wherever they go and made a lot of money.

Any way, I learned a lot about Chinese and Chinese society during these interviews just as Mr. Clevenger, the General Manager of Fairchild Semikor, might have done in Korea when he was in Korea for the first time.

I met Mr. Jackson Wang as the candidate of Production Manager which was supposed to be the No. 2 man position of TMI. He looked like a very smart guy with good personality to lead many people, had a lot of production experience and was very knowledgeble for semiconductors. After quite a long talk with him, I asked him how much he wanted to be paid. He asked $500/month which was relatively high level at Taiwan at the time. I told him I would pay $1,000/month which surprised him so much.

Mr. Clevenger tried to reduce my salary asked by me but I proposed to double the amount he wanted. What a stupid proposal? Absolutely not!! My claculation was – I needed at least one leader in Taiwan who would do his best for me for everything, officially or privately, as I had to work alone in a totally strange country. Additional $500/month or $6,000/year would be almost negligible amount compared to total operating cost of TMI and very cheap price to buy his absolute loyalty for the company.

As a matter of fact, not only he was paid very high salary but also he believed he would be the successor of me after two years and he had been really loyal to the company and myself too. As he was also most experienced senior (oldest) manager in TMI, he demonstrated great loyalty and leadership to all TMI employees later which made my job extremely easier and I had no doubt $6,000/year was paid back to the company by several 10 times perhaps.

The plant site was selected at the Taichung Export Zone (free trade zone) where the building structures were already built by Taiwan government. All we had to do was the inside work of the building which made the completion of the plant much faster.

On the other hand, we got the permanent residentship of the United States in summer of 1976 (It took about a year.) and, as the summer vacation was started, whole family moved to Taichung. Fortunately, there was an American mission school called Morrison Academy in Taichung and kids could continue American education in English.

As we knew a few thausands of Chinese characters most commonly used, I had allowed to write all company documents other than to be sent to AMI in Chinese characters which I could understand without any problem.

However, I thought it would be much more convenient and I could be much closer to Chinese local people, if I could speak Chinese, as the pronounciation of Chinese character in China was quite different from Korea, though the meaning of each character is almost same in both countries. I hired a tuter and both Jane and I started to learn Mandarin Chinese (Beijing dialect and standard language of China ) at home. We learned for 3 months but had to give up because of so called "Four Tones". (Taiwanese is even worse with "Eight Tones".) Depending on the different tone, same "tang" could be expressed for "sugar" or "soup", which difference was so hard not only to remember one by one but also just to differentiate it's pronounciation for me. I gave up in 3 months this way but, though it was just a little of Chinese knowledge, it was still very useful later days.

Mean time, AMI started "Digital Watch" business for the first time in the world. It was a simple single function watch which was even simpler than the cheapest Casio watch sold at $10-$15 today, AMI's gold plated digital watch was the first digital watch in the world and sold at more than $200. AMI started this business at the Sunnyvale plant in Silicon Valley manufacturing LCD display itself also there. Though it is so easy to build 40 inches or even larger TV screen LCD today, it was the first LCD production and 60-70% of LCD display, smaller than an inch for watch display, built in Sunnyvale plant were defective and had to be scrapped.

It seemed there had been a lot of discussions in AMI whether TMI should build semiconductors as originally planned or LCD displays expecting better quality and higher yield in TMI. After we moved to Taiwan, AMI changed mind so often and informed me to plan for semiconductors today and for LCD display next day, switching back and forth so many times. Therefore, I could not proceed the project to build the plant in Taiwan as the LCD display plant had to be quite different from semiconductor plant.

Fortunately,as both plants required dust free clean room operation any way, though LCD operation requires even cleaner operating room, we proceeded to build clean room and office area while we were waiting final decision of AMI. After we finished this basic work, whole project in Taiwan had to be halted.

AMI was still sending different signals week by week switching between two products. I fought with my boss in AMI almost everyday over the phone but he didn't know what to do either. It was a terrible time for a few months with a great mental stress to me. There was nothing much to do every day but I could not leave Taichung for vacation either, as it was totally unpredictable when the final decision would be made in AMI. I didn't know what to say to a few Taiwanese key engineers (who would be Dept. Managers once operation starts.) already hired and working for the company. I had realized how the general manager or president's job would be a lonely job, when you can not have any one around you to talk with frankly.

While we were working for basic clean room work, C. K. An in KMI sent a very experienced section manager of KMI to TMI who was really helpful for me working with local contractor. Also, the president of the contractor, little older than me, spoke Japanese fluently, as Twaiwan was also occupied by Japan for 40 years, longer than Korea. Since I speak Japanese as well as Korean, we spoke Japanese each other between Korean and Taiwanese to communicate.

As the China is a huge country, they didn't pay much attention to details. A door is there just to make sure no one can see inside. It didn't matter to them whether it was really square or tilted little bit. They didn't care about gaps around the door too. There are so many beautiful buildings covered by marble in Taipei but, if you look at carefully close enough, you will find none of the surface is really flat. It was really a hard work to build a clean room with this type of people in Taiwan.

AMI couldn't make mind between semiconductor and LCD display and switched decision back and forth almost weekly for whole third quarter of 1975 making my life very hard in Taiwan but, finally, made final decision to build LCD display in TMI at the end of the year.

As it was the first production in the world except AMI Sunnyvale plant, not only myself but all other Taiwan engineers also didn't know what the LCD display is or any thing about LCD technology. Therefore, we sent all 5 key engineers we had already hired for semiconductors assembly to AMI Sunnyvale plant to learn about LCD display for two months and AMI sent a few Sunnyvale plant engineers to assist us to build LCD display assembly plant in Taiwan.


As soon as TMI engineers returned to Taiwan after two months of training in Sunnyvale, we started to install production equipment, hired first 20 operators (every 20 operators thereafter every week), and trained them for initial operation. And, finally, a golbal company of TMI, invested by American company with Korean General Manager in Taiwan, cut the tape of the plant on 4/15/1977, which date happened to be our wedding annuversary date. It was two years after I was told about Taiwan project and almost one year after our family moved to Taiwan. It was amazing what a slow progress the American company was making!!.


TMI started this way finally and what I did in TMI was almost same as what I did in KMI – walked around operation area few times a day, checked whether every one weared badge in vertical (not tilted), confirmed whether dry boxes were in straight line and doors were all fully closed, any idling tool on walking table?, any dust at the corner? etc. etc..

The additional work for me compared to the work in KMI was, because I knew nothing about LCD display, even the basic theory how the letter is displayed on the glass panel, I had to spend quite a time at first for a while to learn basic theory and technology of LCD display itself from the engineers trained in Sunnyvale and to discuss why the defects were happening in the production line with them.

Once I understood the basics, I depended mostly upon Jackson Wang to operate the whole plant and did not involve any details, as usually I had done according to my management philosophy trusting my people, relying on them and not involving in too much details. Therefore, though many people asked me how busy I was as an only expateriate from AMI, I was not busy at all working only 5-6 hours a day practically, spending quite a time just talking with supervisors and engineers who could speak English, as operators could not speak English, at cafeteria, and even taking a nap in my office often. The only thing I did myself always was the telephone conversation with AMI people.

Since it was the first LCD display assembly operation for every one including myself, there were many difficulties too. First of all, even though semiconductor assembly also required very clean environment, LCD display assembly required far cleaner environment, as one tiny particle in the display would show up as 10-20 times larger spot on the display falling to difective product to be scrapped. Therefore, TMI operation was practically the war against particles in the air of operating room every day. (I am talking so small particles you can not see with your naked eyes.)

To make the situation worse, Chinese are usually careless people to cleanliness and they were not used to this kind of ridiculous cleanliness requirement at all. (There is a joke in China that Chinese takes bath only 3 times in whole life – when they are born, when they marry and after they have died.) Therefore, it was quite a work to change their concept about the cleanliness through training classes and daily conversations.

However, Jackson Wang really did a great job leading all Chinese employees extremely well and we could reduce the defect rate to half of what Sunnyvale plant had in just about 6 months saving again a lot of material cost which surprised AMI management again.

It had been another management philosophy of mine that "Working more than 8 hous a day would make people too tired and would be more harmful rather than beneficial, reducing the efficiency of the people, except just a day or so in case of accident or emergency" I was repeatedly telling KMI people in Korea "The company does not give work load to finish within 8 hours. If you can not finish your job in 8 hours a day, you are incapable guy. Review how you have spent every day carefully. You might have waisted a lot of working hours doing so many unneccessary things for your job and that might be the major cause of overtime requirement, if it is your daily routine. We want efficient worker, not hard worker. As a matter of fact, I hate hard worker who can not be an efficient worker because of exccessive fatigue every day."

When we started TMI operation, I found there again that Taiwan people were used to work until 7-8 o'clock in the evening not finishing the work by 5 PM. I believed it was just a habbit rather than inevitable work. I said samething as I did in KMI many times but the habbit could not be changed so easily.

I asked one day all office employees come to the cafeteria and said "I will not go home until all of you are gone home. Please let me go home early at 5 PM." Then, every day from 5 PM, I was standing at the exit of office waiting every one were gone home. It took about a month to change this habbit and every one went home by 5:10 or 5:20 PM at latest in about a month. However, I had not seen any work delayed due to this shortend working hours and confirmed again that longer working hours would just postpone what you could do now as more hours were left for you to do it, just delaying the work rather than doing more work.

Because Chang Kai-Shek government had been so corrupted while they were in mainland fighting with comminist red army, their soldiers were also killed by weapons supplied by the United States but sold to red army by his government officers. Therefore, when Chang government moved to Taiwan , he executed several generals and cabinet members, including a close relative of Song Mi-Ryung, Chang's wife, openly in Taipei. Since then, Taiwan government had been really clean and the government officers at Taichung Export Zone didn't even accept any lunch invitation from us. (I complained it to the chief officer of the Zone and he joked "we don't accept lunch invitation just because Chinese lunch takes to long time.") During my work in Taiwan for about a year, all we gave to government officers was a bottle of Johnny Walker whisky to the chief officer of the Zone on Lunar New Year Holiday. (Though, TMI Administration Manager told me they were pretending much more because TMI is a foreign company.)

Customs office was also very clean and cooperative very much. However, just once, a General Manager of Hong Kong company had a trouble with customs, as he made customes officer very unhappy as he demonstrated as if he came from much more developed country of Hong Kong . This company were assembling core memory for computer (No one uses it today.) using tiny magnetic memory rings with diameter of 1mm or so. Because they imported this core momories by billions at a time, customs had never counted the quantity and cleared them by paper only.

However, just once, because of General Manager's problem, customs requested to count a shipment of this core memory. It took a few days for all employees of the company to count it shutting down whole operation. As it started by themselves and customs were asking legal procedure, they couldn't even complain about this unusual order of customs.

One difficulty working in Taiwan for me was the conflict between Mainland Chinese and Taiwanese. Taiwanese didn't consider themselves as Chinese while they are all Chinese for Mainland Chinese. Taiwanese considered themselves as invaded and occupied people by Mainland Chinese. (There were 25% of Mainland Chinese and 75% of Taiwanese at that time.) When I talked with both of them mixed, I called them Chinese. But when there were Taiwaneses only, I had to call them as Taiwanese not to hurt their feeling.

When Chang government fleed to Taiwan and established "The Republic of China " in Taiwan, there was a strong opposition of Taiwan people and a lot them were jailed or executed. Not only them, there family members were also restricted to get jobs at government offices or, even they got the jobs, their promotions were very much limited.

Mainland Chinese were all strong anti-communists but Taiwanese who had never experienced communists didn't care much about communism. All they were interested was to make money doing business with any country regardless it was a communist country or not. Under this kind of situation, I had to be very careful talking to them always.

In Taiwan, no body cared much to speak Japanese or sing Japanese songs in public, while they were taboo in Korea, and I talked in Japanese whenever it was more convenient each other, as Japanese was much easier language to talk than English for me too. Though Taiwan was occupied by Japan for 40 years, longer than Korea , Japan didn't try to convert Taiwan as a part of Japan as they did in Korea.

To convert Korea as a part of Japan, Japan forced Koreans to change their family names to Japanese family names, to speak Japanese language only, drafted young Koreans to their army just as Japanese, took Korean girls as sexual entertainer of their soldiers during the World War II, etc. etc. under the slogan of "Mainland (means Japan) and Korea is one body" and "100 millions of same mind" (80 millions of Japanese and 20 millions of Korean together). But none of these had happened in Taiwan and Taiwan was just one of these internationally occupied nations with their own identity.

Since Mainland Chinese "occupied" Taiwan, there was nothing much different for Taiwan people from Japanese occupation which feelings seems to had diluted the feelings against Japanese. Therefore, there was no strong anti-Japanese fellings like in Korea and, for them, the today's anti-Chinese feelings were greater concern.

When I was there, Korea was the only country in United Nations who recognized Taiwan government to represent China and every body loved Korea calling Korea as the brother country. In a taxi, when they thought me as one of Japanese and recognized me as a Korean later, they were so glad and welcomed me to Taiwan. However, after I left Taiwan, Korea changed to recognize Beiging regime as the Chinese government and I heard Taiwan people blamed Korea as a traitor and hated Koreans too.

While we had a wonderful life in Taiwan with Taiwan people there demonstrating such a great success of TMI to AMI management, AMI made a deal with Motorola to sell all LCD watch business in less than a year of TMI oeration at the end of 1977 and TMI was sold to Motorola as a part of watch business deal in Feb. 1978. At this time, I didn't know what the Motorola guy who came to TMI for a survey reported to his boss but Motorola proposed me to join Motorola and continue the job in TMI and asked me to visit their Phoenix, Arizona, office for an interview as they were going to pay all trip expenses.

Well, I was treated very well with easy life in AMI and I, as a practrically lazy guy to enjoy today only not thinking about the future too much, was not too much interested to join a new large company and familiarize with strange people and system there which must be quite a hard work for a while at least.

However, since I was invited and was curious about Motorola, I travelled to Phoenix . It was my first visit to Phoenix and I was not familiar to the road in Phoenix. To make it worse, I found the freeway exit I had to take to visit Motorola office was closed for road work and I was lost for a while. I looked at the map again and found the way to Motorola, but I was about 30 minutes late when I arrived at Motorola.

After various talks, they asked me how much I want to be paid. Well, since I didn't have much interest in Motorola any way, I asked two times of slalary of what AMI was paying to me. Of course, no agreement could be made and I returned to Taiwan to hand over TMI to Motorola.

Now, TMI became a part of Motorola and I was so sorry to all my TMI friends. All of them had been really good friends of me, really loyal employees to the company and made such a wonderful and amazing achievement for AMI. I had to sincerely appologize to all of them about the sale of TMI and they also felt so sorry that I had to leave them earlier.

They had arrnged three farewell parties – first by Dept. Managers, second time by line supervisors, engineers, mechanics and technicians, and by operators at last. I had so many farewell parties in Korea because I moved from one company to another so many times in my life. However, I had never experienced this kind of really heartfelt fairwell parties in my life. I could feel from my heart how nice friends all of them are and could not help having tears in my eyes. On every party, they gave me a plaque of appreciation with such a wonderful and heartfelt wording, which are still kept well in my room and will be forever as far as I live. And that was the eternal friendship of Chinese people, once it was established!!

Now, the plant was handed over to Motorola and operated by Motorola managers. AMI informed me it will take more than 3 months to close the escrow and the final payment from Motorola would be transferred to TMI account about 3 months later. Since I had to stay in Taiwan untill all payments were received and TMI makes all payments to venders, AMI asked me to make a survey trip to Southeast Asia to find another best country to build next semiconductor assembly plant mean time, utilizing this mostly idling time.

Our family moved to a hotel in Taichung, and asked Jackson Wang, Sammy Yao, former TMI Administration Manager, and Christina Shao, my former secretary, to take care of our children during our trip and Jane and I went to a month long Southeast Asia trip. Of course, I was supposed to go the trip alone. However, since hotel expense of the trip will be same any way regardless I stay alone or stay with Jane together and Jane's meal cost would be paid by AMI any way regardless where she was, I proposed AMI that I would go the trip together and will pay her airefare myself and got OK very easily.

The trip was to visit every country in Southeast Asia for 3 days each mostly, meet governement officers on the first day, meets expateriates of American companies on the second day and taking sightseeing group bus tour of the country on the third day to understand the country better, which was such a good trip for Jane.

There was just one problem to start this trip. How are we going to handle TMI bank account, which had around half a million dollars balance usually, and TMI had to continue to make payments every day to here and there, while I am gone for the trip. The account had been arranged to issue a check with two signatures out of three guys – myself, Jackson Wang and the TMI Accounting Manager. AMI expressed great concern as two local guys were not AMI employees any more but working for Motorola.

I replyed "You guys don't understand orientals. In orient, the most imprtant is the face and honor. I can trust these two guys more than any body in the world regardless for whom they work and I gurantee you there would be no problem. If, by any chance, there would be any accident, I will pay you back working free for AMI until it is all paid back."

They seemed to be still cautious but said OK as I was too strong and there was no any better idea. There was actually no problem during our trip and it only made our friendship much stronger as all TMI people were so impressed on my response to AMI and grateful to me trusing them that much. And, I was 100% confident because I knew the Chinese friendship once it had been established.

This way, Jane and I left Taiwan and visited Hong Kong, Philippines, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, Malaysia ( Kuala Lumpur and Penang), India and Mauritius, a small island in western Indian Ocean which name I had never even heard about before myself. As the whole trip took more than a month and we left children in a hotel in Taichung, Jane returned to Taichung from Tailand after 3 weeks of travelling and I went to India and Mauritius alone.

During the trip, we had great dinners almost every evening with American expateriates tasting strange but wonderful local foods, had a very interesting sightseengs at every city, met Young-Il Lee, with whom we worked together at Fairchild Semikor in Seoul but working at Fairchild Indonesia at the time, and met also Chuck Hamrick who was former AMI consultant to KMI but working as a General Manager of Intel plant in Penang, Malaysia.

It was really a luxurious trip for Jane staying at top class hotel in every city and having great food every day. And when she returned to Taichung, what she found was our children had been so well taken care of by Jackson, Samy and Christina, and they had no incovenience what so ever. They sent our children to school every morning and took them back to hotel with company car (my car previously), took them to good restaurants for dinner often and many interesting places during week ends. I really appreciated for their kindness but they said it was no more than to return for my trust and kindness to them.

Since it will be a book to tell you about all my trips to Southeast Asia , I will not describe the trip story here,

After the return from Mauritius Island which was my last destination, we still had to stay in Taichung hotel for two more months until Motorola made the final payment. Children loved room services at the hotel and many good foods at various restaurants at first, but whole family was really tired taking hotel or restaurant food for more than three months.

Soon in June, as soon as the school year was over and summer vacation started, we left Taiwan for Seoul to take a vacation for a week in Seoul. Then, we returned to Silicon Valley after 2 years of very enjoyable life in Taiwan, leaving wonderful friends behind us.

When I went to president's office to say hello on the first day returning to AMI, Mr. Glenn Pennisten, the President of AMI, told me "We would not be able to make a deal with Motorola without TMI. Motorola wanted TMI only but we refused to sell TMI only. We insisted to take whole business as a package or none and Motorola had to take it to buy TMI." And when he also said "You made the greatest amount of profit for AMI as a single individual employee this year and I really appreciate to you.", I didn't know what to answer.

Returning to the United States this way, we had to think over and over to make a decision whether we should return to Korea or live in the United States permanently. It looked like not only children might face much harder life than originally thought before we moved to Taiwan, if we return to Korea after 4 years of American education, as Korean schools were teaching at much faster pace than American school, we were also much more used to American life which seemed to fit more to me who is very liberal and logical hating oriental bureaucratic society. In addition, there were too many beautiful places like many national parks to travel around for the guy thinking "ENJOY TODAY" first always.

Therefore, we decided to stay in the United States rather than to return to Korea.